You thought off-piste skiing just involved putting your skis on and sliding downhill? Well, think again! There are many different types of off-piste skiing and if you’ll be venturing outside the boundaries of a ski resort, it may be useful (in fact, crucial!) to know the differences.
Let’s start by listing some of the most commonly used off-piste skiing terms:
The graph below will serve as a visual aid: the distance to the ski resort and the experience required are key to defining these activities. For example, an intermediate skier might be able to do some off-piste skiing on the side of a groomed run, while ski touring far away from the resort requires far more experience and a very good fitness level.
Bear in mind, however, that some overlap may exist among some of these activities and there may even be some differences in how people in different countries use these terms. But you can trust this Explore-Share guide to serve you as a basic road map to navigate among them (and off-piste terrain!).
Although we will go into each of these terms in detail, it may be useful to split off-piste skiers into two main groups:
1) a first group for whom the emphasis is on the downhill (with little uphill)
2) a second group for whom the value is in exploring the mountains away from the crowds and who finds enjoyment in going uphill.
Sidecountry skiers and freeriders are clearly in the first group while ski touring and ski mountaineering fall into the second group.
Take into account, however, that despite these differences all these activities expose you to mountain hazards and risks. Avalanche risk; cliffs, rocks or other unexpected obstacles; and having no access to the resort’s ski patrol can turn a backcountry adventure into a safety hazard for inexperienced skiers.
Avalanche equipment (and knowing how to operate it) and skiing in the company of a certified mountain guide are key to guaranteeing a great out-of-bounds experience.
Off-piste skiing, slackcountry skiing and sidecountry skiing usually refer to skiing out-of-bounds but close to the resort. Wikipedia defines the “slackcountry” as the “terrain outside of the ski area boundary that is accessed from a lift without having to use skins or bootpack.” It usually involves areas that also provide access back to the lift.
Although not as demanding as ski touring, off-piste skiing requires an overall good skiing level because skiing on ungroomed snow is generally harder than skiing on piste. Powder snow and being able to use the lifts (instead of having to hike up to access the terrain) are high up in the list of priorities of off-piste skiers.
According to Wikipedia, “freeriding is a style of snowboarding or skiing performed on natural, ungroomed terrain, without a set course, goals or rules. It evolved throughout the sport’s formative early years as a contrary response to the highly-regimented style of ski competition prevalent at the time.”
Freeride skiers or riders generally have solid skiing or snowboarding skills and some experience on backcountry terrain. They love untracked runs and mainly enjoy the descents, even if some hiking may be involved.
Although freeride terrain may be accessible from lifts (plus, eventually, a short hike), it may also be accessible on the side of a road, where you hike up or ski down as far as you want. Freeriders may use skins or snowshoes to hike up or may opt for touring skis and bindings for a lighter set-up.
Avalanche equipment is a requirement for freeriding and even expert skiers find that hiring a mountain guide is a great way to enhance their experience and find the best lines.
Backcountry skiing (more commonly used in the US) and ski touring (Europe) refer to “skiing in remote areas, not within ski area boundaries”, according to Wikipedia. Ski touring generally involves the use of skins, which are placed underneath skis to help on the uphill. They are crucial to backcountry skiing because skinning up is more effective and less tiring than hiking.
Ski touring generally involves exploring remote areas of the mountains, with no lifts around, and is reserved for advanced skiers with a very good fitness level. You could choose a hut-to-hut option — where you travel from one mountain refuge to the next —or opt to have a hut or lodge as your base and ski around it.
It is always a good idea to hire a local certified guide when backcountry skiing far away from the resorts. Carrying avalanche equipment is also crucial and, depending on the terrain, ski crampons (traction devices) might also be necessary.
“Splitboarding” deserves its own definition. “A splitboard is a snowboard that can be separated into two ski-like parts used with climbing skills to ascend slopes. The two halves can then be connected to form a regular snowboard for descent”, explains Wikipedia.
Ready to go ski touring for the first time? You can tackle the famous Chamonix-Zermatt Haute Route or try the iconic Spanish mountain traverse of Carros de Foc on skis! In North America, Whistler boasts a world-famous backcountry skiing terrain. And for those who love extreme locations, the wild mountains of Greenland allow an incredible ski touring adventure in the Arctic.
Among all these disciplines, ski mountaineering is the one that requires the most experience. It involves climbing a mountain to then descend on your skis — it is basically the combination of backcountry skiing and mountaineering.
Ski mountaineering requires advanced skiing skills and, depending on the ascent, can also involve advanced mountaineering skills (including rock climbing, crossing a crevasse field or ice climbing on steep couloirs). Apart from touring gear and avalanche equipment, mountaineering gear may be necessary (ice axe, crampons and, possibly, a harness, a belay device, etc).
A ski mountaineering expedition requires a guide for general mountain safety, navigational purposes, and technical assistance.
Ready for a truly epic ski mountaineering expedition? You can ski down Mount Elbrus, the highest mountain Europe, or join a guide for a ski descent on the iconic Mount Fuji, in Japan. For some extra inspiration, read this article featuring the top 5 high-altitude peaks for ski mountaineering.
We hope this guide has helped you get a clear idea of what all these terms mean and how they compare to each other. If you’d like to know more about the equipment you need when going off-piste, read our backcountry checklist. And if you need help picking an avalanche airbag for your next expedition, don’t miss our post on the subject.
Have fun and stay safe out there!
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